Valium (Diazepam) 10mg 2ml Injection / Amp
Diazepam Injection, marketed under the brand name Valium by Roche, is a medication that contains diazepam, a benzodiazepine derivative. It is available as a sterile injection in ampules. Each milliliter of the injection contains 5 mg of diazepam, along with propylene glycol (40%), alcohol (10%), sodium benzoate, benzoic acid (buffers), and benzyl alcohol (preservative).
Valium (Diazepam) –
Valium (Diazepam) is a medication containing diazepam, a benzodiazepine derivative. Marketed under the brand name Valium by Roche, it is available as a sterile injection in ampules. Each milliliter of the injection contains 5 mg of diazepam, along with propylene glycol (40%), alcohol (10%), sodium benzoate, benzoic acid (buffers), and benzyl alcohol (preservative).
Diazepam acts on various parts of the brain, including the limbic system, thalamus, and hypothalamus, producing calming effects. It does not have peripheral autonomic blocking action or extrapyramidal side effects. Higher doses of diazepam can cause temporary ataxia in animals and transient cardiovascular depressor effects in dogs. Long-term studies in rats have not shown any disturbances in endocrine function, but localized irritation and vein thickening may occur at injection sites in animals.
Diazepam has multiple indications for use. It is primarily prescribed for managing anxiety disorders and providing short-term relief from anxiety symptoms. It can also alleviate acute agitation, tremor, delirium tremens, and hallucinosis during acute alcohol withdrawal. Diazepam may be used as an adjunct prior to endoscopic procedures to reduce apprehension, anxiety, and acute stress reactions, as well as to decrease patient recall of the procedure. It is useful for relieving skeletal muscle spasm, spasticity, and seizures, including status epilepticus and severe recurrent convulsive seizures. Additionally, it may be used as a premedication for anxiety and tension relief in patients undergoing surgical procedures or cardioversion.
Diazepam Injection is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug, acute narrow-angle glaucoma, or open-angle glaucoma without appropriate therapy.
When administering diazepam intravenously, precautions should be taken to minimize the risk of venous thrombosis, phlebitis, and local irritation. Care must be exercised when giving the drug to elderly patients, critically ill individuals, and those with limited lung function, as apnea and cardiac arrest may occur. Concurrent use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other central nervous system depressants can increase the risk of respiratory depression. Diazepam should not be given to patients in shock, coma, or acute alcoholic intoxication. Patients taking diazepam should be advised against engaging in activities that require mental alertness. Some patients have reported precipitated tonic status epilepticus with the use of diazepam.
Diazepam is not recommended for use during the first trimester of pregnancy due to an increased risk of congenital malformations associated with minor tranquilizer use. It can cross the placenta, and its use during pregnancy and obstetrical settings is generally discouraged. The safety and efficacy of diazepam injection in neonates (30 days or younger) have not been established.
Common side effects of diazepam injection include drowsiness, fatigue, ataxia, venous thrombosis, phlebitis, and injection site reactions. Other reported adverse reactions include confusion, depression, headache, urinary changes, cardiovascular effects, blurred vision, skin reactions, hiccups, changes in salivation. It neutropenia, jaundice, and paradoxical reactions such as hyperexcited states, anxiety, hallucinations, and increased muscle spasticity. Withdrawal symptoms may occur upon discontinuation of the drug, especially after prolonged use or high doses.
The dosage of diazepam injection should be individualized based on the patient’s condition. The usual recommended dose for older children and adults ranges from 2 mg to 20 mg, depending on the indication and severity.